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Skolos išieškojimas procesas

Neįvykdžius sutartyje numatytos prievolės dėl pinigų sumos atsiskaitymo, šalis (kreditorius) turi teise kreiptis į trečiuosius asmenis dėl skolininko veiksmų, kad užtikrinti prievolės įvykdymą. Svarbu turėti užfiksuotą skolos egzistavimą ir reikiamus dokumentus (įrodymus), kad skolos išieškojimo proceso vykdymas butu įmanomas. Priklausomai nuo skolininko elgesio , skolos išieškojimas vyksta dviem būdais:

  1. Ikiteisminis būdas
  2. Teisminis būdas

Ikiteisminis būdas

Šiame skolos išieškojimo procese skolininkas yra raginamas raštais, skambučiais ir kartais fiziniais laiškais tam tikrą laikotarpį, kurį gali nustatyti pats kreditorius, tačiau nepiktnaudžiaujant suteiktomis paslaugomis  ir vadovautis protingu terminu (pavyzdžiui nuo  14 iki 30 kalendorinių dienų). Be to, laikantis BDAR taisyklių tretieji asmenys, vykdydami kreditoriaus naudai paslauga, gali atlikti tokius veiksmus kaip: skolininko turto ir jo pajamų paieška bei analizę dėl skolininko galimybės skolos grąžinimo. Be abejonės šiame etape skolininkas turi būti tinkamai informuotas apie skolos negrąžinimo teisines pasekmes.

Daugeliu atveju teisinių ir skolų išieškojimo paslaugų išlaidos menkos ar niekinės, palyginus su galutiniu rezultatu

Teisminis būdas

Jei nepavyksta susitarti su skolininku grąžinti skolą  per atitinkamą terminą, skolininkas visiškai nebendradarbiauja, ignoruoja jam teikiamus raginimus, pasiūlymus ir net nesistengia padengti skolą, tuomet kreditorius (klientas) yra informuojamas dėl galimybės išreikalauti skolą teismine tvarka.

Skolos išieškojimas teismine tvarka

Egzistuoja 3 būdai skolos išieškojimo Teisme:

  1. Pareiškimas dėl teismo įsakymo išdavimo.

Dažniausiai tai pigiausias ir greičiausias būdas atgauti skolą. Teismas, nekviečiant šalis į posėdį patikrina įrodymus ir priima įsakymą, kuriuo yra priteisiama skolą.  Siunčiant priimtą teismo įsakymą skolininkui, kam yra siūloma per 20 dienų sumokėti skolą arba pateikti prieštaravimus. Jei skolininkas per nurodytą terminą prieštaravimo nepateikia ir skolos nesumoka, teismo įsakymas įsiteisėja ir jį galima vykdyti priverstinai. Suteikiamas  vykdomasis raštas kuri reikia pateikti antstoliui. Tačiau jei skolininkas gyvena užsienyje, tokio pareiškimo negalima reikšti ir reikia rinkti kitą skolos išieškojimo būdą.

  1. Ieškinys dokumentinio proceso tvarka.

Teismui yra pateikiamas ieškinys dėl skolos išieškojimo ir prašoma nagrinėti jį  dokumentinio proceso tvarka. Priimant ieškinį ir patikrinant įrodymus, Teismas priima preliminarų sprendimą, kuriuo priteisia skolą. Skolininkui, (taip pat kaip pareiškime dėl teismo įsakymo išdavimo) yra duodamas 20 dienų terminas prieštaravimams pareikšti. Jei prieštaravimai nepareiškiami, preliminarus teismo sprendimas įsiteisėja ir gali būti vykdomas priverstinai. Jei skolininkas  gyvena užsienyje arba jo vieta yra nežinoma atitinkamai šis procesas nėra galimas ir reikia imtis kito teisminio būdo.

  1. Ieškinys bendrąja tvarka.

Šis būdas yra aktualiausias kai yra žinoma tiksliai, kad skolininkas ginčis skolos išieškojimo procedūra, tačiau jis yra pats brangiausias ir ilgiausiai trunkantis, kadangi rengiami teismo posėdžiai žodine tvarka (jei nėra galimybės Teismui priimti sprendimą už akių). Jei skolininko vieta nežinoma, šis būdas skaitosi tinkamu norint pasiekti skolos išieškojimo rezultato.

Žyminis mokėstis

Žyminio mokesčio dydis yra numatytas Lietuvos Respublikos civilinio proceso kodekse 80 straipsnyje . Skolų išieškojimui yra taikomi:

  1. Žyminis mokestis bylose dėl teismo įsakymų – ketvirtadalis sumos, mokėtinos už ieškinį, bet ne mažiau kaip dešimt eurų;
  2. Žyminis mokestis dokumentinio proceso tvarka nagrinėjamose bylose – pusė sumos, mokėtinos už ieškinį, bet ne mažiau kaip dešimt eurų;
  3. Žyminis mokestis ieškinio bendra tvarka – 1-3 procentai nuo ieškinio sumos (priklausomai nuo skolos dydžio).

Skolininko statusas

BDAR nedraudžia tvarkyti skolininko duomenis, tačiau kad nepažeisti jo teisių ir interesų, galima tvarkyti tiki tuos duomenis kurie yra susiję tiesiogiai su skola. Skolininko informacija neturėtu būti platinama ir viešinama, yra draudžiamas skolininko viešinimas dėl finansinės nesėkmės.

Lietuvos Respublikos civilinis kodeksas numato, kad įmonės tvarkantys skolos išieškojimo duomenis kreditoriaus naudai privalo pranešti skolininkui apie jo duomenų perdavimo faktą. Skolininkas turi būti informuotas, tačiau jo sutikimas dėl kreditoriaus perdavimo skolos įmonei  yra visiškai nebūtinas. Svarbu skolininką tinkamai informuoti.

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